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A Joe Cell That Actually Works - Part 2 | Protons not Orgone

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This is a basic scientific breakdown of the Joe Cell. For the complete instruction manual, visit my site: http://www.Ritalie.com/store

"Physicists in the US... used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to see a single hydrogen atom ...." Physics World, July 16, 2008.

"Regular water at room temperature has approximately one in a million water molecules at any instant in time disassociated into a hydroxyl ion (OH-) and a hydronium ion (H+) [a proton]." Gary Wade, Physicist. August 8, 1998.


SUPPLEMENTAL RESEARCH NOTES:
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From Wikipedia:

A proton is a nuclear particle with a unit positive charge; it is represented by the symbol H+ because it constitutes the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, that is, a hydrogen cation.
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Misconceptions about Electricity:

"Scientists originally had a very clear meaning for the word "electricity." It meant "charge. They would say that electrons carry negative electricity, and protons carry positive electricity.

During electric currents in batteries, in salt water, or in human flesh, the electric current is a flow of both positive and negative ions moving in opposite directions. Two flows of "electricity" take place in the same conductor. In your brain and nervous system, electric current is a flow of positive and negative atoms going in opposite directions. During electric currents in neon signs, in sparks, lightning, etc., there is a flow of both positive ions and electrons. [Protons are positive ions of hydrogen.] The same is true for liquid metals. And when two materials are rubbed together, sometimes positive or negative ions are transferred, and sometimes electrons are transferred.

Modern science recognizes that positive particles can flow, and recognizes the existence of both positrons and electrons...."

Link: http://amasci.com/miscon/eleca.html

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More information about Protons and water.

[In water, there is constant proton movement, especially when the water is placed in an electrolytic cell, which is what a Joe Cell is. Much is still unknown about the movement of protons in water, but it is known that they move inside the body, creating energy for cellular function, and also within batteries.]
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Probing the mechanisms of proton transfer in liquid water:

"To date, the accepted picture of an excess proton in water is that it can exist either as an “Eigen” or “Zundel” cation (Fig. 1 A and B). The proton transfer (PT) process has then been described as a stepwise hopping of a proton (from a H3O+ ion to a water molecule or from a water molecular to HO−) within a time frame of roughly 1–2 ps. For a successful transfer, a fluctuation in the local water structure is required; this solvent reorganization is now referred to as the concept of presolvation.

The authors demonstrate that the mechanism by which the excess proton can diffuse through water is strongly influenced be its local hydration structure...." [The configuration of water molecules determines the ability of a proton to travel between ions in water].

Link: http://www.pnas.org/content/110/34/13697.full

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Grotthuss proton transfer:

The Grotthuss mechanism, whereby protons tunnel from one water molecule to the next b via hydrogen bonding, is the usual mechanism given for facilitated proton mobility. The process is similar to that of autodissociation; the mechanism causing the ions (H+, OH-) to initially separate. Both processes increase with increasing temperature.

Link: http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/grotthuss.html

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[The following could explain how a Joe Cell can increase vehicle gas mileage, and the overall fuel energy content of your gasoline without any measurable input current to the cell. This is because protons are released via an unknown mechanism which indicates a free release of energy. If these protons are used for combustion, the energy released has no measurable energy cost associated with it. The exact mechanism of this depends on the correct configuration of the water, and does require input energy initially to destabilize the water further.]
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Proton transfer between water molecules: a theoretical study of solvent effects using the continuum and the discrete-continuum models:

"In fact, an activation free energy of 2.4 kcal/mol has been experimentally obtained for the proton transfer between a hydronium ion and a water molecule in aqueous solution. "

Link: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/j100144a031

Francisco R. Tortonda, Juan Luis Pascual-Ahuir, Estanislao Silla, Inaki Tunon
J. Phys. Chem., 1993, 97 (42), pp 11087–11091
DOI: 10.1021/j100144a031
Publication Date: October 1993

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