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Biochar For Food Security and Climate Change Mitigation By Dr.P.C.Patel and Mr.Naresh Yadav

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Soil application of biochar could significantly reduced the emission of CH4 and N2O and thus contribute to mitigating GHG emissions, particularly in situations where N2O emissions are greatest, such as in intensively fertilized, irrigated agriculture. Biochar may sequester carbon in the soil for centuries or even millennium, it may provide nutrients as promoters of plant growth, it may reduce soil GHGs emissions and nitrate migration towards groundwater, it may improve the physical and chemical characteristics of soil, thereby supporting soil biology, and it may immobilize soil pollutants, thereby protecting plants from mobile contaminants.
The research study of ICAR, New Delhi indicated that declining response of wheat crop to improved management in Global Warming Scenarios. In present situation, many advanced technologies are available for reducing/mitigating the problems of climate change. Among these technologies, Biochar Technology is promise not only for food security but helps in climate change mitigation. The biochar retains plant nutrients and minimize the leaching losses of plant nutrients in soil so increases in fertilizer use efficiency. Biochar can be prepared at farm level on small scale so affordable for small farmers. It increases crop production. It increases soil carbon level. Biochar is very stable and remain in soils for thousands of years. Biochar has a synergistic effect with fertilizer and farmyard manure.
Biochar has been shown to enhance agronomic efficiency -- that is, yield of harvested product per unit of fertilizer input. In high-productivity situations, this benefit may be manifest as fertilizer savings, whereas in low-yield situations, crop yields may be increased. In situations where greater plant growth results from biochar application, there will be greater C sequestration in growing biomass. This may result in increased returns of organic matter to soil.
Because CH4 and N2O are potent GHGs, reduction in these emissions from soil through application of biochar could significantly contribute to mitigating GHG emissions, particularly in situations where N2O emissions are greatest, such as in intensively fertilized, irrigated agriculture.
Application of maize stover biochar @10 MT/ha along with recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) increased dry matter yield, crude protein yield, chlorophyll content and plant height (at 30 and 60 DAS) as compared to cluster bean biochar and Prosopis julifera wood biochar and farmyard manure. The uptake of plant nutrients were also higher in the treatment of maize stover biochar @10 MT/ha along with RDF. The treatment of maize stover biochar @ 5 MT/ha along with RDF produced similar dry matter and crude protein yields of maize.

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