Ion thruster - Video Learning - WizScience.com

41 Views
Published
An "ion thruster" is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating ions. The term is strictly used to refer to gridded electrostatic ion thrusters, but may often more loosely be applied to all electric propulsion systems that accelerate plasma, since plasma consists of ions.

Ion thrusters are categorized by how they accelerate the ions, using either electrostatic or electromagnetic force. Electrostatic ion thrusters use the Coulomb force and accelerate the ions in the direction of the electric field. Electromagnetic ion thrusters use the Lorentz force to accelerate the ions. In either case, when an ion passes through an electrostatic grid engine, the potential difference of the electric field converts to the ion's kinetic energy.

Ion thrusters have an input power spanning 1–7 kilowatts, exhaust velocity 20–50 kilometers per second, thrust 20–250 millinewtons and efficiency 60–80%.

The Deep Space 1 spacecraft, powered by an ion thruster, changed velocity by 4.3 km/s while consuming less than 74 kilograms of xenon. The Dawn spacecraft broke the record, reaching 10 km/s.

Applications include control of the orientation and position of orbiting satellites and use as a main propulsion engine for low-mass robotic space vehicles .

Ion thrusters are not the most promising type of electrically powered spacecraft propulsion . The ion drive is comparable to a car that takes two days to accelerate from zero to 60 miles per hour; a real ion engine's technical characteristics, and especially its thrust, are considerably inferior to its literary prototypes. Technical capabilities of the ion engine are limited by the space charge created by ions. This limits the thrust density . Ion thrusters create small thrust levels compared to conventional chemical rockets, but achieve very high specific impulse, or propellant mass efficiency, by accelerating their exhaust to high speed. However, ion thrusters carry a fundamental price: the power imparted to the exhaust increases with the square of its velocity while thrust increases linearly. Chemical rockets, on the other hand, can provide high thrust, but are limited in total impulse by the small amount of energy that can be stored chemically in the propellants. Given the practical weight of suitable power sources, the accelerations given by ion thrusters are frequently less than one thousandth of standard gravity. However, since they operate as electric motors, a greater fraction of the input power is converted into kinetic exhaust power than in a chemical rocket. Chemical rockets operate as heat engines, hence Carnot's theorem bounds their possible exhaust velocity.



Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages.
SUBSCRIBE TODAY

Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Background Music:
"The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library.


This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion+thruster, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.

Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages.
SUBSCRIBE TODAY

Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Background Music:
"The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library.


This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion+thruster, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
Be the first to comment